Poverty is an economic state where people are experiencing scarcity or the lack of certain commodities that are required for the lives of humans. The word poverty comes from the French word “poverté” which means poor. Poverty is a state or condition in which a person or community lacks the financial resources and essentials for a minimum standard of living.
Types of Poverty:
Poverty means that the income level from employment is so low that basic human needs can’t be met. Poverty-stricken people and families might go without proper housing, clean water, healthy food, and medical attention. Poverty has been associated, for example, with poor health, low levels of education or skills, an inability or an unwillingness to work, high rates of disruptive or disorderly behavior, and improvidence.
On the basis of social, economic, and political aspects, there are different ways to identify the type of Poverty: Absolute poverty, Relative Poverty, Situational Poverty, Generational Poverty, Rural Poverty, and Urban Poverty.
1. Absolute poverty: It is also known as extreme poverty or abject poverty, it involves the scarcity of basic food, clean water, health, shelter, education, and information. Those who belong to absolute poverty tend to struggle to live and experience a lot of child deaths from preventable diseases like malaria, cholera, and water-contamination-related diseases.
2. Relative Poverty: It is defined from the social perspective that is the living standard compared to the economic standards of the population living in surroundings. Hence it is a measure of income inequality. For example, a family can be considered poor if it cannot afford food, education, clothing, vacations, and gifts for children.
3. Situational Poverty: It is a temporary type of poverty based on the occurrence of an adverse event like an environmental disaster, job loss, and severe health problems.
People can help themselves even with small assistance, as poverty comes because of unfortunate events.
4. Generational Poverty: It is handed over to individuals and families from one generation to the other. This is more complicated as there is no escape because the people are trapped in its cause and unable to access the tools required to get out of it.
5. Rural Poverty:
It occurs in rural areas with populations below 50,000. It is the area where there are fewer job opportunities, less access to services, less support for disabilities, and quality education opportunities. People are tending to live mostly on the farming and other menial work available to the surroundings.
6. Urban Poverty: It occurs in metropolitan areas with a population of over 50,000. These are some major challenges faced by the urban poor. Limited access to health and education, inadequate housing and services, unhealthy environment because of overcrowding, and little social protection mechanism.
Eradication of Poverty:
“Overcoming poverty is not a gesture of charity. It is an act of justice. It is the protection of fundamental human rights. Everyone everywhere has the right to live with dignity, free from fear and oppression, free from hunger and thirst, and free to express them and associate at will.”
Poverty is a moral issue because it is not right that some people enjoy an affluent lifestyle, while so many lack educational opportunities, healthcare, housing, and adequate nutrition. The rights of the poor should be the same as the rights of the rich. Creating jobs and increase in daily wages, investing in affordable, high-quality child care and early education, and supporting pay equity are some steps to eradicate poverty from a country.